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  • Writer's pictureCayla Townes

I Don't Know What To Say: How to Talk to Children About Death, Illness, & Grief

Updated: Dec 1, 2023

So often I hear from people that they "don't know what to say" to someone who's grieving. We live in a culture that has a difficult time talking about death and few of us have been given useful tools to help ourselves, or those we care about, with grief. Helping children who are dealing with the illness or death of a loved one can seem especially difficult. "What if I say too much? What if say something that makes everything worse? What if I just upset them?" Read on for some helpful tips about how to talk to children about death, illness, and grief.


grief crying child caregiver parent death illness

As adults, we often find it challenging to discuss topics like illness, death, and grief. However, it is crucial to understand that children also experience these profound emotions and need our guidance and support to navigate them. By engaging in open and honest conversations, we can help children develop a better understanding of these difficult concepts and provide them with the tools they need to cope effectively.


When we avoid discussing illness, death, and grief with children, we unintentionally create a barrier between them and the world they live in. By shielding them from the realities of life, we deny them the opportunity to process their emotions and develop healthy coping mechanisms. It is important to remember that children are perceptive and can sense when something is wrong. By not addressing these topics, we risk causing confusion and anxiety in their young minds.


So how do we talk to them about these things in a way that helps and doesn't harm?


Children's Understanding of Illness, Death, and Grief

Understanding how children comprehend illness, death, and grief at different stages of their development is crucial in approaching these sensitive conversations. Young children, typically between the ages of two and five, may struggle to grasp the concept of death as permanent. They may believe that the person who died will come back or that death is reversible. It is important to use simple and concrete language when explaining death to young children, avoiding euphemisms such as "gone to sleep" or "lost."


As children grow older, between the ages of six and nine, they begin to understand the finality of death but may still struggle with the abstract nature of grief. They may not fully comprehend the emotional impact of loss or understand that grief can last for an extended period. Providing them with gentle explanations and allowing them to ask questions can help them navigate these complex emotions.


Pre-teens and teenagers, between the ages of ten and eighteen, have a more mature understanding of illness, death, and grief. They may experience a wide range of emotions, including anger, guilt, and sadness. It is essential to create a safe space where they feel comfortable expressing their feelings and provide them with the support they need during this challenging time.


Explaining Illness and Death to Children in an Age-Appropriate Way

Explaining illness and death to children also requires careful consideration of their age and level of understanding. As mentioned above, for young children it is important to use simple and concrete language. You can explain that when someone is ill, their body is not working properly, which can make them feel tired or in pain. Use examples like catching a cold or having a stomachache to help them relate to the concept of illness.


When discussing death, it is crucial to avoid euphemisms and be clear about the finality of the situation. Explain that when someone dies, their body stops working, and they cannot come back. Reassure the child that death is a natural part of life and that it is okay to feel sad or miss the person who has passed away.


For older children, you can provide more detailed explanations about specific illnesses and the process of dying. Use age-appropriate language and encourage them to ask questions. Be prepared to offer support and comfort as they navigate their understanding of these complex topics.


How to Approach Difficult Conversations with Children

Approaching difficult conversations with children requires sensitivity, empathy, and an understanding of their developmental stage. It is so important to choose an appropriate time and place for these discussions. Find a quiet and comfortable setting where the child feels safe and secure. Ensure that you have enough time for an uninterrupted conversation, as children may need time to process their emotions and ask questions.


Start the conversation by acknowledging the child's feelings and assuring them that it is okay to be sad, angry, confused, whatever. Encourage them to share their thoughts and emotions openly. Listen actively to the child's responses and validate their feelings. Reassure them that their emotions are normal and natural. Avoid dismissing or minimizing their experiences, as this can lead to a sense of invalidation. Instead, offer comfort and support, letting them know that you are there for them every step of the way.


sad child grief loss death dying illness

Explaining Grief and Supporting Children in their Grief

Grief is a complex and multifaceted emotion that children may struggle to comprehend. Supporting children through the grieving process requires creating a safe and supportive environment where they feel comfortable expressing their emotions. It is important to explain to children that grief is a normal response to loss and that it manifests differently for each person. Encourage them to express their feelings openly and let them know that it is okay to cry, be angry, or feel a range of emotions. Avoid judgment or criticism, as this can make children reluctant to share their thoughts and feelings. Instead, provide comfort and support, reminding them that you are there for them.


Help children understand that grief can come in waves and that it is a process that takes time. Explain that it is normal to feel better one day and then experience moments of sadness or anger later on. Reassure them that their emotions are valid and that they are not alone in their grief. Be patient and understanding, as children may need time to process their grief.


Provide children with healthy coping mechanisms to manage their grief. Encourage them to talk about their feelings, engage in activities they enjoy, and spend time with loved ones who can provide support. Engage in activities that promote healing and provide a sense of normalcy. It is also essential to involve them in rituals or memorial services that honor the person who has passed away, as this can offer a sense of closure and provide an opportunity for them to say goodbye.


Creating a Safe and Supportive Environment

Creating a safe and supportive environment for children experiencing loss is essential for their emotional well-being. Make sure to maintain consistent routines and provide stability in their daily lives. This can help children feel grounded and secure during times of uncertainty.


Encourage open communication within the family and allow children to express their thoughts and feelings without judgment. Create space for them to ask questions and provide age-appropriate answers. It is crucial to be honest and transparent while also considering their emotional capacity to comprehend complex concepts.


Seek support from other trusted adults, such as teachers, counselors, or family friends. These individuals can provide additional guidance and offer different perspectives on how to support children through their grief. Remember that you do not have to navigate this journey alone, and reaching out for help is a sign of strength.


Professional Support

In some cases, children may require professional support to navigate the complexities of illness, death, and grief. Child therapists or grief counselors can provide specialized guidance and interventions tailored to the child's individual needs.


These professionals can help children explore their emotions, develop coping strategies, and find healthy ways to express their grief. They can also offer support to parents and caregivers, guiding them in how best to support their children during this challenging time.


If you believe your child would benefit from professional support, reach out to local mental health organizations or ask for referrals from your child's school or pediatrician.


Tips for Parents and Caregivers Supporting Children Through Illness, Death, and Grief

Supporting children through illness, death, and grief can be challenging for parents and caregivers. Here is a brief summary to help you navigate this difficult journey:


  1. Be available: Make yourself emotionally available and create opportunities for children to express their thoughts and feelings. Let them know that you are there to listen and support them.

  2. Be honest: Use age-appropriate language and avoid euphemisms or confusing metaphors. Be honest about the situation and provide clear explanations.

  3. Be patient: Understand that grief is a process that takes time. Be patient with children as they navigate their emotions and allow them to grieve at their own pace.

  4. Provide comfort: Offer physical and emotional comfort to children experiencing loss. Hug them, hold their hand, and let them know that they are loved and supported.

  5. Seek professional help: If you notice prolonged or intense grief reactions in your child, consider seeking professional help from therapists or counselors who specialize in child grief support.


understanding support child parent caregiver

The Most Important Things: Understanding and Support

Supporting children through illness, death, and grief is a challenging but essential part of parenting and caregiving. By engaging in open and honest conversations, we can provide children with the understanding and support they need to navigate these difficult experiences.


Remember to consider the child's developmental stage when discussing illness, death, and grief. Use age-appropriate language, provide simple explanations, and encourage questions. Create a safe and supportive environment where children feel comfortable expressing their emotions and seek professional help when needed.


By fostering open communication and providing unconditional love and support, we can help children develop resilience and healthy coping mechanisms. Together, we can support little hearts as they navigate the complex emotions of illness, death, and grief.



Have questions about supporting children or their caregivers in their grief? Feel free to contact me for support or information about resources available to help.



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